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gaia early data release 3 documentation



This work presents results from the European Space Agency (ESA) space mission Gaia. Gaia data are being processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for the DPAC is provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia MultiLateral Agreement (MLA). The Gaia mission website is The Gaia archive website is

The Gaia mission and data processing have financially been supported by, in alphabetical order by country:

  • the Algerian Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique of Bouzareah Observatory;

  • the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF) Hertha Firnberg Programme through grants T359, P20046, and P23737;

  • the BELgian federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) through various PROgramme de Développement d’Expériences scientifiques (PRODEX) grants and the Polish Academy of Sciences - Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek through grant VS.091.16N, and the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS);

  • the Brazil-France exchange programmes Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Coordenação de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) - Comité Français d’Evaluation de la Coopération Universitaire et Scientifique avec le Brésil (COFECUB);

  • the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) through grants 11573054 and 11703065 and the China Scholarship Council through grant 201806040200;

  • the Tenure Track Pilot Programme of the Croatian Science Foundation and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and the project TTP-2018-07-1171 ‘Mining the Variable Sky’, with the funds of the Croatian-Swiss Research Programme;

  • the Czech-Republic Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports through grant LG 15010 and INTER-EXCELLENCE grant LTAUSA18093, and the Czech Space Office through ESA PECS contract 98058;

  • the Danish Ministry of Science;

  • the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research through grant IUT40-1;

  • the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme through the European Leadership in Space Astrometry (ELSA) Marie Curie Research Training Network (MRTN-CT-2006-033481), through Marie Curie project PIOF-GA-2009-255267 (Space AsteroSeismology & RR Lyrae stars, SAS-RRL), and through a Marie Curie Transfer-of-Knowledge (ToK) fellowship (MTKD-CT-2004-014188); the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme through grant FP7-606740 (FP7-SPACE-2013-1) for the Gaia European Network for Improved data User Services (GENIUS) and through grant 264895 for the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training (GREAT-ITN) network;

  • the European Research Council (ERC) through grants 320360 and 647208 and through the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation and excellent science programmes through Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant 745617 as well as grants 670519 (Mixing and Angular Momentum tranSport of massIvE stars – MAMSIE), 687378 (Small Bodies: Near and Far), 682115 (Using the Magellanic Clouds to Understand the Interaction of Galaxies), and 695099 (A sub-percent distance scale from binaries and Cepheids – CepBin);

  • the European Science Foundation (ESF), in the framework of the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training Research Network Programme (GREAT-ESF);

  • the European Space Agency (ESA) in the framework of the Gaia project, through the Plan for European Cooperating States (PECS) programme through grants for Slovenia, through contracts C98090 and 4000106398/12/NL/KML for Hungary, and through contract 4000115263/15/NL/IB for Germany;

  • the Academy of Finland and the Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation;

  • the French Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES), the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) through grant ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02 for the ‘Investissements d’avenir’ programme, through grant ANR-15-CE31-0007 for project ‘Modelling the Milky Way in the Gaia era’ (MOD4Gaia), through grant ANR-14-CE33-0014-01 for project ‘The Milky Way disc formation in the Gaia era’ (ARCHEOGAL), and through grant ANR-15-CE31-0012-01 for project ‘Unlocking the potential of Cepheids as primary distance calibrators’ (UnlockCepheids), the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and its SNO Gaia of the Institut des Sciences de l’Univers (INSU), its Programmes Nationaux: Cosmologie et Galaxies (PNCG), Gravitation Références Astronomie Métrologie (PNGRAM), Planétologie (PNP), Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI), and Physique Stellaire (PNPS), the ‘Action Fédératrice Gaia’ of the Observatoire de Paris, the Région de Franche-Comté, the Institut de Physique (INP) and the Institut National de Physique nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3) co-funded by CNES;

  • the German Aerospace Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., DLR) through grants 50QG0501, 50QG0601, 50QG0602, 50QG0701, 50QG0901, 50QG1001, 50QG1101, 50QG1401, 50QG1402, 50QG1403, 50QG1404, and 50QG1904 and the Centre for Information Services and High Performance Computing (ZIH) at the Technische Universität (TU) Dresden for generous allocations of computer time;

  • the Hungarian Academy of Sciences through the Lendület Programme grants LP2014-17 and LP2018-7 and through the Premium Postdoctoral Research Programme (L. Molnár), and the Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office (NKFIH) through grant KH_18-130405;

  • the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) through a Royal Society - SFI University Research Fellowship (M. Fraser);

  • the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) through grant 848/16;

  • the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) through contracts I/037/08/0, I/058/10/0, 2014-025-R.0, 2014-025-R.1.2015, and 2018-24-HH.0 to the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), contract 2014-049-R.0/1/2 to INAF for the Space Science Data Centre (SSDC, formerly known as the ASI Science Data Center, ASDC), contracts I/008/10/0, 2013/030/I.0, 2013-030-I.0.1-2015, and 2016-17-I.0 to the Aerospace Logistics Technology Engineering Company (ALTEC S.p.A.), INAF, and the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca) through the Premiale project ‘MIning The Cosmos Big Data and Innovative Italian Technology for Frontier Astrophysics and Cosmology’ (MITiC);

  • the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) through grant NWO-M-614.061.414, through a VICI grant (A. Helmi), and through a Spinoza prize (A. Helmi), and the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA);

  • the Polish National Science Centre through HARMONIA grant 2018/30/M/ST9/00311, DAINA grant 2017/27/L/ST9/03221, and PRELUDIUM grant 2017/25/N/ST9/01253, and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSW) through grant DIR/WK/2018/12;

  • the Portugese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through grants SFRH/BPD/74697/2010 and SFRH/BD/128840/2017 and the Strategic Programme UID/FIS/00099/2019 for CENTRA;

  • the Slovenian Research Agency through grant P1-0188;

  • the Spanish Ministry of Economy (MINECO/FEDER, UE) through grants ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R, ESP2016-80079-C2-2-R, RTI2018-095076-B-C21, RTI2018-095076-B-C22, BES-2016-078499, and BES-2017-083126 and the Juan de la Cierva formación 2015 grant FJCI-2015-2671, the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports through grant FPU16/03827, the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) through grant AYA2017-89841P for project ‘Estudio de las propiedades de los fósiles estelares en el entorno del Grupo Local’ and through grant TIN2015-65316-P for project ‘Computación de Altas Prestaciones VII’, the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence Programme of the Spanish Government through grant SEV2015-0493, the Institute of Cosmos Sciences University of Barcelona (ICCUB, Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’) through grants MDM-2014-0369 and CEX2019-000918-M, the University of Barcelona’s official doctoral programme for the development of an R+D+i project through an Ajuts de Personal Investigador en Formació (APIF) grant, the Spanish Virtual Observatory through project AyA2017-84089, the Galician Regional Government, Xunta de Galicia, through grants ED431B-2018/42 and ED481A-2019/155, support received from the Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (CITIC) funded by the Xunta de Galicia, the Xunta de Galicia and the Centros Singulares de Investigación de Galicia for the period 2016-2019 through CITIC, the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) / Fondo Europeo de Desenvolvemento Rexional (FEDER) for the Galicia 2014-2020 Programme through grant ED431G-2019/01, the Red Española de Supercomputación (RES) computer resources at MareNostrum, the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre - Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS) through activities AECT-2016-1-0006, AECT-2016-2-0013, AECT-2016-3-0011, and AECT-2017-1-0020, the Departament d’Innovació, Universitats i Empresa de la Generalitat de Catalunya through grant 2014-SGR-1051 for project ‘Models de Programació i Entorns d’Execució Parallels’ (MPEXPAR), and Ramon y Cajal Fellowship RYC2018-025968-I;

  • the Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA/Rymdstyrelsen);

  • the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research, and Innovation through the Mesures d’Accompagnement, the Swiss Activités Nationales Complémentaires, and the Swiss National Science Foundation;

  • the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), and the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) through the following grants to the University of Bristol, the University of Cambridge, the University of Edinburgh, the University of Leicester, the Mullard Space Sciences Laboratory of University College London, and the United Kingdom Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL): PP/D006511/1, PP/D006546/1, PP/D006570/1, ST/I000852/1, ST/J005045/1, ST/K00056X/1, ST/K000209/1, ST/K000756/1, ST/L006561/1, ST/N000595/1, ST/N000641/1, ST/N000978/1, ST/N001117/1, ST/S000089/1, ST/S000976/1, ST/S001123/1, ST/S001948/1, ST/S002103/1, and ST/V000969/1.

The Gaia project and data processing have made use of:

  • the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data (SIMBAD, Wenger et al. 2000), the ‘Aladin sky atlas’ (Bonnarel et al. 2000; Boch and Fernique 2014), and the VizieR catalogue access tool (Ochsenbein et al. 2000), all operated at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS);

  • the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrophysics Data System (ADS);

  • the SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS), initiated by the Space Environment and Effects Section (TEC-EES) of ESA and developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) under ESA contract through ESA’s General Support Technologies Programme (GSTP), administered by the BELgian federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO);

  • the software products TOPCAT, STIL, and STILTS (Taylor 2005, 2006);

  • Matplotlib (Hunter 2007);

  • IPython (Pérez and Granger 2007);

  • Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018);

  • R (R Core Team 2013);

  • Vaex (Breddels and Veljanoski 2018);

  • the Hipparcos-2 catalogue (van Leeuwen 2007b). The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues were constructed under the responsibility of large scientific teams collaborating with ESA. The Consortia Leaders were Lennart Lindegren (Lund, Sweden: NDAC) and Jean Kovalevsky (Grasse, France: FAST), together responsible for the Hipparcos Catalogue; Erik Høg (Copenhagen, Denmark: TDAC) responsible for the Tycho Catalogue; and Catherine Turon (Meudon, France: INCA) responsible for the Hipparcos Input Catalogue (HIC);

  • the Tycho-2 catalogue (Høg et al. 2000), the construction of which was supported by the Velux Foundation of 1981 and the Danish Space Board;

  • The Tycho double star catalogue (TDSC, Fabricius et al. 2002), based on observations made with the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite, as supported by the Danish Space Board and the United States Naval Observatory through their double-star programme;

  • data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS, Skrutskie et al. 2006), which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) / California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) of the USA;

  • the ninth data release of the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS, Henden et al. 2016), funded by the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund;

  • the first data release of the Pan-STARRS survey (Chambers et al. 2016; Magnier et al. 2016a; Waters et al. 2016; Magnier et al. 2016c, b; Flewelling et al. 2016). The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation through grant AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation;

  • the second release of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC2.3, Lasker et al. 2008). The Guide Star Catalogue II is a joint project of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (OATo). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under contract NAS5-26555. OATo is operated by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Additional support was provided by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (STECF), the International GEMINI project, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Astrophysics Division (nowadays SCI-S);

  • the eXtended, Large (XL) version of the catalogue of Positions and Proper Motions (PPM-XL, Roeser et al. 2010);

  • data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, and NEOWISE, which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. WISE and NEOWISE are funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA);

  • the first data release of the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT-1, Zacharias et al. 2015);

  • the fourth data release of the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalogue (UCAC-4, Zacharias et al. 2013);

  • the fifth data release of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE DR5, Kunder et al. 2017). Funding for RAVE has been provided by the Australian Astronomical Observatory, the Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), the Australian National University, the Australian Research Council, the French National Research Agency, the German Research Foundation (SPP 1177 and SFB 881), the European Research Council (ERC-StG 240271 Galactica), the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica at Padova, The Johns Hopkins University, the National Science Foundation of the USA (AST-0908326), the W. M. Keck foundation, the Macquarie University, the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Slovenian Research Agency, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Science & Technology Facilities Council of the UK, Opticon, Strasbourg Observatory, and the Universities of Groningen, Heidelberg, and Sydney. The RAVE website is at;

  • the first data release of the Large sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST DR1, Luo et al. 2015);

  • the K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalogue (EPIC, Huber et al. 2016);

  • the ninth data release of the Sloan Digitial Sky Survey (SDSS DR9, Ahn et al. 2012). Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the United States Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University;

  • the thirteenth release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR13, Albareti et al. 2017). Funding for SDSS-IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the United States Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) / University of Tokyo, the Korean Participation Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional / MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University;

  • the second release of the SkyMapper catalogue (SkyMapper DR2, Onken et al. 2019, Digital Object Identifier 10.25914/5ce60d31ce759). The national facility capability for SkyMapper has been funded through grant LE130100104 from the Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment, and Facilities (LIEF) programme, awarded to the University of Sydney, the Australian National University, Swinburne University of Technology, the University of Queensland, the University of Western Australia, the University of Melbourne, Curtin University of Technology, Monash University, and the Australian Astronomical Observatory. SkyMapper is owned and operated by The Australian National University’s Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The survey data were processed and provided by the SkyMapper Team at the the Australian National University. The SkyMapper node of the All-Sky Virtual Observatory (ASVO) is hosted at the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI). Development and support the SkyMapper node of the ASVO has been funded in part by Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) and the Australian Government through the Commonwealth’s Education Investment Fund (EIF) and National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS), particularly the National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) and the Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS).

The GBOT programme (Section 4.2.2) uses observations collected at (i) the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) with the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), under ESO programmes 092.B-0165, 093.B-0236, 094.B-0181, 095.B-0046, 096.B-0162, 097.B-0304, 098.B-0030, 099.B-0034, 0100.B-0131, 0101.B-0156, 0102.B-0174, and 0103.B-0165; and (ii) the Liverpool Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias with financial support from the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council, and (iii) telescopes of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network.

In addition to the currently active DPAC (and ESA science) authors of the peer-reviewed papers accompanying Gaia EDR3, there are large numbers of former DPAC members who made significant contributions to the (preparations of the) data processing. Among those are, in alphabetical order: Christopher Agard, Alexandra Alecu, Peter Allan, France Allard, Walter Allasia, Carlos Allende Prieto, Antonio Amorim, Kader Amsif, Alexandre Andrei, Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Erika Antiche, Sonia Antón, Bernardino Arcay, Borja Arroyo Galende, Vladan Arsenijevic, Tri Astraatmadja, Rajesh Kumar Bachchan, Carlos Barata, Angelique Barbier, Fabio Barblan, Paul Barklem, Mickael Batailler, Duncan Bates, Mathias Beck, Luigi Bedin, Antonio Bello García, Vasily Belokurov, Philippe Bendjoya, Angel Berihuete, Hans Bernstein, Olivier Bienaymé, Lionel Bigot, Albert Bijaoui, Françoise Billebaud, Nadejda Blagorodnova, Thierry Bloch, Klaas de Boer, Marco Bonfigli, Giuseppe Bono, Simon Borgniet, Raul Borrachero-Sanchez, François Bouchy, Steve Boudreault, Geraldine Bourda, Guy Boutonnet, Pascal Branet, Maarten Breddels, Scott Brown, Pierre-Marie Brunet, Thomas Brüsemeister, Peter Bunclark, Roberto Buonanno, Robert Butorafuchs, Joan Cambras, Heather Campbell, Christophe Carret, Manuel Carrillo, César Carrión, Francisco Javier Casquero, Jonathan Charnas, Fabien Chéreau, Nick Chornay, Marcial Clotet, Gabriele Cocozza, Ross Collins, Gabriele Contursi, Leonardo Corcione, Gráinne Costigan, Alessandro Crisafi, Nick Cross, Jan Cuypers, Jean-Charles Damery, Eric Darmigny, Jonas Debosscher, Peter De Cat, Céline Delle Luche, Maria Del Mar Nunez Campos, Domitilla De Martino, Markus Demleitner, Thavisha Dharmawardena, Carla Domingues, Sandra Dos Anjos, Laurent Douchy, Petros Drazinos, Pierre Dubath, Javier Durán, Yifat Dzigan, Sebastian Els, Arjen van Elteren, Kjell Eriksson, Carolina von Essen, Wyn Evans, Guillaume Eynard Bontemps, Antonio Falcão, Martí Farràs Casas, Luciana Federici, Fernando de Felice, Krzysztof Findeisen, Florin Fodor, Yori Fournier, Benoit Frezouls, Aidan Fries, Jan Fuchs, Flavio Fusi Pecci, Diego Fustes, Duncan Fyfe, Eva Gallardo, Silvia Galleti, Fernando Garcia, Daniele Gardiol, Nora Garralda, Alvin Gavel, Emilien Gaudin, Marwan Gebran, Yoann Gérard, Nathalie Gerbier, Joris Gerssen, Andreja Gomboc, Miguel Gomes, Anita Gómez, Ana González-Marcos, Eva Grebel, Michel Grenon, Eric Grux, Alain Gueguen, Pierre Guillout, Andres Gúrpide, Aurelien Hees, Julien Heu, Albert Heyrovsky, Wilfried Hofmann, Erik Høg, Andrew Holland, Gordon Hopkinson, Claude Huc, Jason Hunt, Brigitte Huynh, Arkadiusz Hypki, Giacinto Iannicola, Vilma Icardi, Laura Inno, Mike Irwin, Yago Isasi Parache, Thierry Jacq, Asif Jan, Anne-Marie Janotto, Laurent Jean-Rigaud, Isabelle Jégouzo-Giroux, Christian Jezequel, François Jocteur-Monrozier, Paula Jofré, Anthony Jonckheere, Antoine Jorissen, Antonios Karampelas, Ralf Keil, Adam Kewley, Dae-Won Kim, Peter Klagyivik, Jochen Klar, Jonas Klüter, Jens Knude, Oleg Kochukhov, Katrien Kolenberg, Indrek Kolka, Pavel Koubsky, Janez Kos, Irina Kovalenko, Maria Kudryashova, Ilya Kull, Alex Kutka, Frédéric Lacoste-Seris, Sylvain Lafosse, Valéry Lainey, Pascal Laizeau, Antoni Latorre, Felix Lauwaert, Claudia Lavalley, Jean-Baptiste Lavigne, David LeBouquin, Vassili Lemaitre, Helmut Lenhardt, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte, Frédéric Leroux, Thierry Levoir, Chao Liu, Mauro López, Davide Loreggia, Denise Lorenz, Cristina Luengo, Ian MacDonald, Marc Madaule, Tiago Magalhães Fernandes, Valeri Makarov, Jean-Christophe Malapert, Hervé Manche, Gregory Mantelet, Daniel Marín Pina, Gabor Marschalko, Mathieu Marseille, Christophe Martayan, Oscar Martinez-Rubi, Michele Martino, Paul Marty, Nicolas Mary, Benjamin Massart, Gal Matijevič, Emmanuel Mercier, Frédéric Meynadier, Shan Mignot, Bruno Miranda, Marco Molinaro, Marc Moniez, Alain Montmory, Stephan Morgenthaler, Ulisse Munari, Jérôme Narbonne, Gijs Nelemans, Anne-Thérèse Nguyen, Luciano Nicastro, Thomas Nordlander, Markus Nullmeier, Derek O’Callaghan, Pierre Ocvirk, Alex Ogden, Joaquín Ordieres-Meré, Diego Ordonez, Patricio Ortiz, Jose Osorio, Dagmara Oszkiewicz, Alex Ouzounis, Hugo Palacin, Max Palmer, Peregrine Park, Ester Pasquato, Xavier Passot, Marco Pecoraro, Roselyne Pedrosa, Christian Peltzer, Hanna Pentikäinen, Jordi Peralta, Fabien Péturaud, Bernard Pichon, Tuomo Pieniluoma, Enrico Pigozzi, Bertrand Plez, Joel Poels, Arnaud Poulain, Guylaine Prat, Thibaut Prod’homme, Adrien Raffy, Serena Rago, Piero Ranalli, Gregor Rauw, Andrew Read, José Rebordao, Philippe Redon, Rita Ribeiro, Ariadna Ribes Metidieri, Pascal Richard, Daniel Risquez, Adrien Rivard, Brigitte Rocca-Volmerange, Nicolas de Roll, Siv Rosén, Stefano Rubele, Laura Ruiz Dern, Idoia Ruiz-Fuertes, Federico Russo, Toni Santana, Helder Savietto, Damien Segransan, I-Chun Shih, André Silva, Helder Silva, Dimitris Sinachopoulos, Riccardo Smareglia, Kester Smith, Michael Soffel, Sergio Soria Nieto, Danuta Sosnowska, Maxime Spano, Ulrike Stampa, Hristo Stoev, Vytautas Straižys, Frank Suess, Jean Surdej, Dirk Terrell, David Terrett, Pierre Teyssandier, Stephan Theil, Carola Tiede, Brandon Tingley, Anastasia Titarenko, Scott Trager, Licia Troisi, Paraskevi Tsalmantza, David Tur, Stefano Uzzi, Mattia Vaccari, Frédéric Vachier, Emmanouil Vachlas, Gaetano Valentini, Pau Vallès, Veronique Valette, Walter Van Hamme, Eric Van Hemelryck, Mihaly Varadi, Marco Vaschetto, Jovan Veljanoski, Lionel Veltz, Sjoert van Velzen, Teresa Via, Jenni Virtanen, Antonio Volpicelli, Holger Voss, Viktor Votruba, Jean-Marie Wallut, Gavin Walmsley, Olivier Wertz, Rainer Wichmann, Mark Wilkinson, Petar Zečević, Tim de Zeeuw, Maruska Zerjal, Houri Ziaeepour, and Sven Zschocke.

In addition to the DPAC consortium, past and present, there are numerous people, mostly in ESA and in industry, who have made or continue to make essential contributions to Gaia, for instance those employed in science and mission operations or in the design, manufacturing, integration, and testing of the spacecraft and its modules, subsystems, and units. Many of those will remain unnamed yet spent countless hours, occasionally during nights, weekends, and public holidays, in cold offices and dark clean rooms. At the risk of being incomplete, we specifically acknowledge, in alphabetical order, from Airbus DS (Toulouse): Alexandre Affre, Marie-Thérèse Aimé, Audrey Albert, Aurélien Albert-Aguilar, Hania Arsalane, Arnaud Aurousseau, Denis Bassi, Franck Bayle, Pierre-Luc Bazin, Emmanuelle Benninger, Philippe Bertrand, Jean-Bernard Biau, François Binter, Cédric Blanc, Eric Blonde, Patrick Bonzom, Bernard Bories, Jean-Jacques Bouisset, Joël Boyadjian, Isabelle Brault, Corinne Buge, Bertrand Calvel, Jean-Michel Camus, France Canton, Lionel Carminati, Michel Carrie, Didier Castel, Philippe Charvet, François Chassat, Fabrice Cherouat, Ludovic Chirouze, Michel Choquet, Claude Coatantiec, Emmanuel Collados, Philippe Corberand, Christelle Dauga, Robert Davancens, Catherine Deblock, Eric Decourbey, Charles Dekhtiar, Michel Delannoy, Michel Delgado, Damien Delmas, Emilie Demange, Victor Depeyre, Isabelle Desenclos, Christian Dio, Kevin Downes, Marie-Ange Duro, Eric Ecale, Omar Emam, Elizabeth Estrada, Coralie Falgayrac, Benjamin Farcot, Claude Faubert, Frédéric Faye, Sébastien Finana, Grégory Flandin, Loic Floury, Gilles Fongy, Michel Fruit, Florence Fusero, Christophe Gabilan, Jérémie Gaboriaud, Cyril Gallard, Damien Galy, Benjamin Gandon, Patrick Gareth, Eric Gelis, André Gellon, Laurent Georges, Philippe-Marie Gomez, José Goncalves, Frédéric Guedes, Vincent Guillemier, Thomas Guilpain, Stéphane Halbout, Marie Hanne, Grégory Hazera, Daniel Herbin, Tommy Hercher, Claude Hoarau le Papillon, Matthias Holz, Philippe Humbert, Sophie Jallade, Grégory Jonniaux, Frédéric Juillard, Philippe Jung, Charles Koeck, Marc Labaysse, Réné Laborde, Anouk Laborie, Jérôme Lacoste-Barutel, Baptiste Laynet, Virginie Le Gall, Julien L’Hermitte, Marc Le Roy, Christian Lebranchu, Didier Lebreton, Patrick Lelong, Jean-Luc Leon, Stephan Leppke, Franck Levallois, Philippe Lingot, Laurant Lobo, Céline Lopez, Jean-Michel Loupias, Carlos Luque, Sébastien Maes, Bruno Mamdy, Denis Marchais, Alexandre Marson, Benjamin Massart, Rémi Mauriac, Philippe Mayo, Caroline Meisse, Hervé Mercereau, Olivier Michel, Florent Minaire, Xavier Moisson, David Monteiro ,Denis Montperrus, Boris Niel, Cédric Papot, Jean-François Pasquier, Gareth Patrick, Pascal Paulet, Martin Peccia, Sylvie Peden, Sonia Penalva, Michel Pendaries, Philippe Peres, Grégory Personne, Dominique Pierot, Jean-Marc Pillot, Lydie Pinel, Fabien Piquemal, Vincent Poinsignon, Maxime Pomelec, André Porras, Pierre Pouny, Severin Provost, Sébastien Ramos, Fabienne Raux, Florian Reuscher, Nicolas Riguet, Mickael Roche, Gilles Rougier, Bruno Rouzier, Stephane Roy, Jean-Paul Ruffie, Frédéric Safa, Heloise Scheer, Claudie Serris, André Sobeczko, Jean-François Soucaille, Philippe Tatry, Théo Thomas, Pierre Thoral, Dominique Torcheux, Vincent Tortel, Stephane Touzeau, Didier Trantoul, Cyril Vétel, Jean-Axel Vatinel, Jean-Paul Vormus, and Marc Zanoni; from Airbus DS (Friedrichshafen): Jan Beck, Frank Blender, Volker Hashagen, Armin Hauser, Bastian Hell, Cosmas Heller, Matthias Holz, Heinz-Dieter Junginger, Klaus-Peter Koeble, Karin Pietroboni, Ulrich Rauscher, Rebekka Reichle, Florian Reuscher, Ariane Stephan, Christian Stierle, Riccardo Vascotto, Christian Hehr, Markus Schelkle, Rudi Kerner, Udo Schuhmacher, Peter Moeller, Rene Stritter, Jürgen Frank, Wolfram Beckert, Evelyn Walser, Steffen Roetzer, Fritz Vogel, and Friedbert Zilly; from Airbus DS (Stevenage): Mohammed Ali, David Bibby, Leisha Carratt, Veronica Carroll, Clive Catley, Patrick Chapman, Chris Chetwood, Tom Colegrove, Andrew Davies, Denis Di Filippantonio, Andy Dyne, Alex Elliot, Omar Emam, Colin Farmer, Steve Farrington, Nick Francis, Albert Gilchrist, Brian Grainger, Yann Le Hiress, Vicky Hodges, Jonathan Holroyd, Haroon Hussain, Roger Jarvis, Lewis Jenner, Steve King, Chris Lloyd, Neil Kimbrey, Alessandro Martis, Bal Matharu, Karen May, Florent Minaire, Katherine Mills, James Myatt, Chris Nicholas, Paul Norridge, David Perkins, Michael Pieri, Matthew Pigg, Angelo Povoleri, Robert Purvinskis, Phil Robson, Julien Saliege, Satti Sangha, Paramijt Singh, John Standing, Dongyao Tan, Keith Thomas, Rosalind Warren, Andy Whitehouse, Robert Wilson, Hazel Wood, Steven Danes, Scott Englefield, Juan Flores-Watson, Chris Lord, Allan Parry, Juliet Morris, Nick Gregory, and Ian Mansell.

From ESA, in alphabetical order: Ricard Abello, Asier Abreu, Ivan Aksenov, Matthew Allen, Salim Ansari, Philippe Armbruster, Alessandro Atzei, Liesse Ayache, Samy Azaz, Nana Bach, Jean-Pierre Balley, Paul Balm, Manuela Baroni, Rainer Bauske, Thomas Beck, Gabriele Bellei, Carlos Bielsa, Gerhard Billig, Carmen Blasco, Andreas Boosz, Bruno Bras, Julia Braun, Thierry Bru, Frank Budnik, Joe Bush, Marco Butkovic, Jacques Candeé, David Cano, Carlos Casas, Francesco Castellini, David Chapmann, Nebil Cinar, Mark Clements, Giovanni Colangelo, Peter Collins, Ana Colorado McEvoy, Gabriele Comoretto, Vincente Companys, Federico Cordero, Sylvain Damiani, Fabienne Delhaise, Gianpiero Di Girolamo, Yannis Diamantidis, John Dodsworth, Ernesto Dölling, Jane Douglas, Jean Doutreleau, Dominic Doyle, Mark Drapes, Frank Dreger, Peter Droll, Gerhard Drolshagen, Bret Durrett, Christina Eilers, Yannick Enginger, Alessandro Ercolani, Matthias Erdmann, Orcun Ergincan, Robert Ernst, Daniel Escolar, Maria Espina, Hugh Evans, Fabio Favata, Stefano Ferreri, Daniel Firre, Michael Flegel, Melanie Flentge, Alan Flowers, Steve Foley, Jens Freihöfer, Rob Furnell, Julio Gallegos, Philippe Garé, Wahida Gasti, José Gavira, Frank Geerling, Franck Germes, Gottlob Gienger, Bénédicte Girouart, Bernard Godard, Nick Godfrey, César Gómez Hernández, Roy Gouka, Cosimo Greco, Robert Guilanya, Kester Habermann, Manfred Hadwiger, Ian Harrison, Angela Head, Martin Hechler, Kjeld Hjortnaes, John Hoar, Jacolien Hoek, Frank Hoffmann, Justin Howard, Arjan Hulsbosch, Christopher Hunter, Premysl Janik, José Jiménez, Emmanuel Joliet, Helma van de Kamp-Glasbergen, Simon Kellett, Andrea Kerruish, Kevin Kewin, Oliver Kiddle, Sabine Kielbassa, Volker Kirschner, Kees van ’t Klooster, Ralf Kohley, Jan Kolmas, Oliver El Korashy, Arek Kowalczyk, Holger Krag, Benoît Lainé, Markus Landgraf, Sven Landström, Mathias Lauer, Robert Launer, Laurence Tu-Mai Levan, Mark ter Linden, Santiago Llorente, Tim Lock, Alejandro Lopez-Lozano, Guillermo Lorenzo, Tiago Loureiro, James Madison, Juan Manuel Garcia, Federico di Marco, Jonas Marie, Filip Marinic, Pier Mario Besso, Arturo Martín Polegre, Ander Martínez, Monica Martínez Fernández, Marco Massaro, Paolo de Meo, Ana Mestre, Luca Michienzi, David Milligan, Ali Mohammadzadeh, David Monteiro, Richard Morgan-Owen, Trevor Morley, Prisca Mühlmann, Jana Mulacova, Michael Müller, Pablo Muñoz, Petteri Nieminen, Alfred Nillies, Wilfried Nzoubou, Alistair O’Connell, Karen O’Flaherty, Alfonso Olias Sanz, William O’Mullane, José Osinde, Oscar Pace, Mohini Parameswaran, Ramon Pardo, Taniya Parikh, Paul Parsons, Panos Partheniou, Torgeir Paulsen, Dario Pellegrinetti, José-Louis Pellon-Bailon, Joe Pereira, Michael Perryman, Christian Philippe, Alex Popescu, Frédéric Raison, Riccardo Rampini, Florian Renk, Alfonso Rivero, Andrew Robson, Gerd Rössling, Martina Rossmann, Markus Rückert, Andreas Rudolph, Frédéric Safa, Johannes Sahlmann, Eugenio Salguero, Jamie Salt, Giovanni Santin, Fabio de Santis, Rui Santos, Giuseppe Sarri, Stefano Scaglioni, Melanie Schabe, Dominic Schäfer, Micha Schmidt, Rudolf Schmidt, Ared Schnorhk, Klaus-Jürgen Schulz, Jean Schütz, Julia Schwartz, Andreas Scior, Jörg Seifert, Christopher Semprimoschnig, Ed Serpell, Iñaki Serraller Vizcaino, Gunther Sessler, Felicity Sheasby, Alex Short, Hassan Siddiqui, Heike Sillack, Swamy Siram, Christopher Smith, Claudio Sollazzo, Steven Straw, Daniel Tapiador, Pilar de Teodoro, Mark Thompson, Giulio Tonelloto, Felice Torelli, Raffaele Tosellini, Cecil Tranquille, Irren Tsu-Silva, Livio Tucci, Aileen Urwin, Jean-Baptiste Valet, Martin Vannier, Enrico Vassallo, David Verrier, Sam Verstaen, Rüdiger Vetter, José Villalvilla, Raffaele Vitulli, Mildred Vögele, Sandra Vogt, Sergio Volonté, Catherine Watson, Karsten Weber, Daniel Werner, Gary Whitehead, Gavin Williams, Alistair Winton, Michael Witting, Peter Wright, Karlie Yeung, Marco Zambianchi, and Igor Zayer, and finally Vincenzo Innocente from the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN).

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